His autobiography lists his 13 virtues as:, Franklin did not try to work on them all at once. or do we imagine that we no longer need His assistance. , Franklin appeared on the first U.S. postage stamp (displayed above) issued in 1847. They did not get their names by accident. Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the committee, Franklin made several "small but important" changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson. He surmised that this could help protect buildings from lightning by attaching "upright Rods of Iron, made sharp as a Needle and gilt to prevent Rusting, and from the Foot of those Rods a Wire down the outside of the Building into the Ground; ... Would not these pointed Rods probably draw the Electrical Fire silently out of a Cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible Mischief!"  After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the policies of the British Parliament and the Crown.. Pennsylvanians were outraged, believing that he had supported the measure all along, and threatened to destroy his home in Philadelphia. He was the 106th member of the Lodge. , In Scotland, he spent five days with Lord Kames near Stirling and stayed for three weeks with David Hume in Edinburgh. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. It was widely believed that English liberties relied on their balance of power, but also hierarchal deference to the privileged class.  Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. John Adams noted that Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholics thought him almost a Catholic. ", He provided an early response to British surveillance through his own network of counter-surveillance and manipulation. Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in 1764.  In 1741, Franklin began publishing The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle for all the British Plantations in America, the first such monthly magazine of this type published in America. Among his inner circle were the printer William Strahan and the jurist Richard Jackson. It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers since he believed that the press had a public-service duty. , In December 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States. A polymath, he was a leading writer, printer, political philosopher, politician, Freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.  He took with him as secretary his 16-year-old grandson, William Temple Franklin. ", Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years.  The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. When he first arrived, he worked in several printer shops around town, but he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. Nehemiah 6:13 Therefore was he hired, that I should be afraid, and do so, and sin, and that they might have matter for an evil report, that they might reproach me. This alphabet never caught on, and he eventually lost interest.  In July 1784, Franklin met with Mirabeau and contributed anonymous materials that the Frenchman used in his first signed work: Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus. He studied the effects on a large pond in Clapham Common, London. Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. The Academy of Natural Sciences, April 1939 m, Jogn Gribbin, "In search of Schrödinger's cat", Black Swan, p. 12, *W. Gratzer, Eurekas and Euphorias, pp. When Ben was 15, James founded The New-England Courant, which was the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. No records of his games have survived, so it is not possible to ascertain his playing strength in modern terms. ", Well known as a printer and publisher, Franklin was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia in 1737, holding the office until 1753, when he and publisher William Hunter were named deputy postmasters–general of British North America, the first to hold the office. Morgan, David T. "Benjamin Franklin: Champion of Generic Religion". Bart In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the northeast of Philadelphia. The anti-proprietary party dispatched Franklin to England again to continue the struggle against the Penn family proprietorship.  He was also awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University in 1762. Their daughter, Sarah "Sally" Franklin, was born in 1743 and grew up to marry Richard Bache, have seven children, and look after her father in his old age.  Joseph Haydn, a fan of Franklin's enlightened ideas, had a glass harmonica in his instrument collection. He worked with the London glassblower Charles James to create it, and instruments based on his mechanical version soon found their way to other parts of Europe. He met with the Paxton leaders and persuaded them to disperse. , In 1756, Franklin received an honorary Master of Arts degree from the College of William & Mary. 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